Growing a Nation

National History Standards & Agriculture

United States History Standards for Grades 5-12
   Era 2: Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)

STANDARD 1
Why the Americas attracted Europeans, why they brought enslaved Africans to their colonies, and how Europeans struggled for control of North America and the Caribbean.

Standard 1A
The student understands how diverse immigrants affected the formation of European colonies.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Analyze the religious, political, and economic motives of free immigrants from different parts of Europe who came to North America and the Caribbean. [Consider multiple causation]
5-12 Explain why so many European indentured servants risked the hardships of bound labor overseas. [Consider multiple perspectives]

Standard 1B
The student understands the European struggle for control of North America.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
7-12 Analyze how various Native American societies changed as a result of the expanding European settlements and how they influenced European societies. [Examine the influence of ideas and interests]

STANDARD 3
How the values and institutions of European economic life took root in the colonies, and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas

Standard 3A
The student understands colonial economic life and labor systems in the Americas.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
7-12 Explain mercantilism and evaluate how it influenced patterns of economic activity. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
5-12 Identify the major economic regions in the Americas and explain how labor systems shaped them. [Utilize visual and mathematical data]

Standard 3B
The student understands economic life and the development of labor systems in the English colonies.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explain how environmental and human factors accounted for differences in the economies that developed in the colonies of New England, mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake, and lower South. [Compare and contrast different sets of ideas]
7-12 Analyze how the early Navigation Acts affected economic life in the colonies. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances]

Standard 3C
The student understands African life under slavery.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
9-12 Assess the contribution of enslaved and free Africans to economic development in different regions of the American colonies. [Interrogate historical data]


Era 3: Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)

STANDARD 2
The impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society.

Standard 2B
The student understands the economic issues arising out of the Revolution.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Analyze the factors that led to Shay's Rebellion. [Analyze multiple causation]
7-12 Explain the dispute over the western lands and evaluate how it was resolved. [Draw upon data in historical maps]
9-12 Explain how the Continental Congress and the states attempted to rebuild the economy by addressing issues of foreign and internal trade, banking, and taxation. [Formulate a position or course of action on an issue]


Era 4: Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)

STANDARD 1
United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans.

Standard 1A
The student understands the international background and consequences of the Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, and the Monroe Doctrine.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Analyze the factors that led to Shay's Rebellion. [Analyze multiple causation]
7-12 Explain the dispute over the western lands and evaluate how it was resolved. [Draw upon data in historical maps]
9-12 Explain how the Continental Congress and the states attempted to rebuild the economy by addressing issues of foreign and internal trade, banking, and taxation. [Formulate a position or course of action on an issue]

Standard 1C
The student understands the ideology of Manifest Destiny, the nation's expansion to the Northwest, and the Mexican-American War.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explain the economic, political, racial, and religious roots of Manifest Destiny and analyze how the concept influenced the westward expansion of the nation. [Examine the influence of ideas]

STANDARD 2
How the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed the lives of Americans and led toward regional tensions

Standard 2A
The student understands how the factory system and the transportation and market revolutions shaped regional patterns of economic development.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explain how the major technological developments that revolutionized land and water transportation arose and analyze how they transformed the economy, created international markets, and affected the environment. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
9-12 Explain how economic policies related to expansion, including northern dominance of locomotive transportation, served different regional interests and contributed to growing political and sectional differences. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas]
9-12 Compare how patterns of economic growth and recession affected territorial expansion and community life in the North, South, and West. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

Standard 2B
The student understands the first era of American urbanization.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
7-12 Analyze how rapid urbanization, immigration, and industrialization affected the social fabric of early 19th-century cities. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
5-12 Compare popular and high culture in the growing cities. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas]

Standard 2D
The student understands the rapid growth of "the peculiar institution" after 1800 and the varied experiences of African Americans under slavery.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explain how the cotton gin and the opening of new lands in the South and West led to the increased demand for slaves. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
5-12 Describe the plantation system and the roles of their owners, their families, hired white workers, and enslaved African Americans. [Consider multiple perspectives]

Standard 2E
The student understands the settlement of the West.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explore the lure of the West and the reality of life on the frontier. [Examine the influence of ideas]
5-12 Examine the origins and political organization of the Mormons, explaining the motives for their trek west and evaluating their contributions to the settlement of the West. [Appreciate historical perspectives]


Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)

STANDARD 1
The causes of the Civil War

Standard 1A
The student understands how the North and South differed and how politics and ideologies led to the Civil War.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explain the causes of the Civil War and evaluate the importance of slavery as a principal cause of the conflict. [Compare competing historical narratives]

STANDARD 2
The course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people.

Standard 2B
The student understands the social experience of the war on the battlefield and homefront.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Compare the human and material costs of the war in the North and South and assess the degree to which the war reunited the nation. [Examine historical perspectives]


Era 6: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900)

STANDARD 1
How the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed the American people.

Standard 1A
The student understands the connections among industrialization, the advent of the modern corporation, and material well-being.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
9-12 Compare the ascent of new industries today with those of a century ago. [Hypothesize the influence of the past]

Standard 1B
The student understands the rapid growth of cities and how urban life changed.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explain how major geographical and technological influences, including hydraulic engineering and barbed wire, affected farming, mining, and ranching. [Draw upon data in historical maps]
5-12 Trace the migration of people from farm to city and their adjustment to urban life. [Appreciate historical perspectives]

Standard 1C
The student understands how agriculture, mining, and ranching were transformed.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explain how major geographical and technological influences, including hydraulic engineering and barbed wire, affected farming, mining, and ranching. [Draw upon data in historical maps]
5-12 Explain the conflicts that arose during the settlement of the "last frontier" among farmers, ranchers, and miners. [Consider multiple perspectives]
9-12 Analyze the role of the federal government--particularly in terms of land policy, water, and Indian policy--in the economic transformation of the West. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
7-12 Explain how commercial farming differed in the Northeast, South, Great Plains, and West in terms of crop production, farm labor, financing, and transportation. [Compare and contrast differing economic patterns]
7-12 Explain the gender composition and ethnic diversity of farmers, miners, and ranchers and analyze how this affected the development of the West. [Examine the influence of ideas]
7-12 Explain the significance of farm organizations. [Analyze multiple causation]

Standard 1D
The student understands the effects of rapid industrialization on the environment and the emergence of the first conservation movement.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Analyze the environmental costs of pollution and the depletion of natural resources during the period 1870-1900. [Utilize visual and mathematical data]
7-12 Explain the origins of environmentalism and the conservation movement in the late 19th century. [Examine the influence of ideas]

STANDARD 3
The rise of the American labor movement and how political issues reflected social and economic changes.

Standard 3C
The student understands how Americans grappled with social, economic, and political issues.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
9-12 Explain the causes and effects of the depressions of 1873-79 and 1893-97 and the ways in which government, business, labor, and farmers responded. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
7-12 Explain the political, social, and economic roots of Populism and distinguish Populism from earlier democratic reform movements. [Examine the influence of ideas]
9-12 Analyze the Populists' Omaha Platform of 1892 as a statement of grievances and an agenda for reform. [Interrogate historical data]
5-12 Analyze the issues and results of the 1896 election and determine to what extent it was a turning point in American politics. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
7-12 Evaluate the successes and failures of Populism. [Examine the influence of ideas]


Era 7: The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930)

STANDARD 1
How Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption.

Standard 1A
The student understands the origin of the Progressives and the coalitions they formed to deal with issues at the local and state levels.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
9-12 Assess Progressive efforts to regulate big business, curb labor militancy, and protect the rights of workers and consumers. [Evaluate alternative courses of action]

Standard 1B
The student understands Progressivism at the national level.

STANDARD 3
How the United States changed from the end of World War I to the eve of the Great Depression.

Standard 3B
The student understands how a modern capitalist economy emerged in the 1920s.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explain how principles of scientific management and technological innovations, including assembly lines, rapid transit, household appliances, and radio, continued to transform production, work, and daily life. [Examine the influence of ideas]
7-12 Explain the role of new technology and scientific research in the rise of agribusiness and agricultural productivity. [Utilize quantitative data]


Era 8: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)

STANDARD 1
The causes of the Great Depression and how it affected American society.

Standard 1A
The student understands the causes of the crash of 1929 and the Great Depression.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Analyze the causes and consequences of the stock market crash of 1929. [Compare competing historical narratives]
5-12 Evaluate the causes of the Great Depression. [Analyze multiple causation]
9-12 Explain the global context of the depression and the reasons for the worldwide economic collapse. [Evaluate major debates among historians]

Standard 1B
The student understands how American life changed during the 1930s.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explain the effects of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl on American farm owners, tenants, and sharecroppers. [Analyze multiple causation]
7-12 Analyze the impact of the Great Depression on the American family and on ethnic and racial minorities. [Consider multiple perspectives]

STANDARD 2
How the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state.

Standard 2A
The student understands the New Deal and the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
7-12 Analyze the links between the early New Deal and Progressivism. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas]
9-12 Contrast the first and second New Deals and evaluate the success and failures of the relief, recovery, and reform measures associated with each. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas]
7-12 Explain renewed efforts to protect the environment during the Great Depression and evaluate their success in places such as the Dust Bowl and the Tennessee Valley. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

Standard 2C
The student understands opposition to the New Deal, the alternative programs of its detractors, and the legacy of the New Deal.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
9-12 Explain the reasoning of the Supreme Court decisions on early New Deal legislation and evaluate the Roosevelt administration’s response. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas]
5-12 Evaluate the significance and legacy of the New Deal. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision]

STANDARD 3
The causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs.

Standard 3C
The student understands the effects of World War II at home.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explain how the United States mobilized its economic and military resources during World War II. [Utilize visual and quantitative data]
9-12 Evaluate the war’s impact on science, medicine, and technology, especially in nuclear physics, weaponry, synthetic fibers, and television. [Utilize quantitative data]


Era 9: Postwar United States (1945 to early 1970s)

STANDARD 1
The economic boom and social transformation of postwar United States.

Standard 1A
The student understands the extent and impact of economic changes in the postwar period.
**NOTE: Bracketed [] phrases indicate matching 'Historical Thinking Standards.'

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Explain the reasons for the sustained growth of the postwar consumer economy. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

Standard 1C
The student understands how postwar science augmented the nation's economic strength, transformed daily life, and influenced the world economy.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
9-12 Explore how the new relationship between science and government after World War II created a new system of scientific research and development. [Explain historical continuity and change]
5-12 Identify various pioneers in modern scientific research and explain how their work has changed contemporary society. [Assess the importance of the individual in history]
7-12 Describe agricultural innovation and consolidation in the postwar period and assess their impact on the world economy. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

STANDARD 3
Domestic policies after World War II.

Standard 3B
The student understands the “New Frontier” and the “Great Society.”

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
7-12 Assess the effectiveness of the “Great Society” programs. [Evaluate major debates among historians]
7-12 Compare the so-called second environmental movement with the first at the beginning of the 20th century. [Compare and contrast different movements]


Era 10: Contemporary United States (1968 to the present)

STANDARD 1
Recent developments in foreign policy and domestic politics.

Standard 1A
The student understands domestic politics from Nixon to Carter.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Evaluate the effectiveness of the Nixon, Ford, and Carter administrations in addressing social and environmental issues. [Assess the importance of the individual in history]

Standard 1C
The student understands how postwar science augmented the nation;s economic strength, transformed daily life, and influenced the world economy.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
9-12 Explore how the new relationship between science and government after World War II created a new system of scientific research and development. [Explain historical continuity and change]
5-12 Identify various pioneers in modern scientific research and explain how their work has changed contemporary society. [Assess the importance of the individual in history]
7-12 Describe agricultural innovation and consolidation in the postwar period and assess their impact on the world economy. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

STANDARD 2
Economic, social, and cultural developments in contemporary United States.

Standard 2A
The student understands economic patterns since 1968.

Grade Level Therefore, the student is able to
5-12 Evaluate how scientific advances and technological changes such as robotics and the computer revolution affect the economy and the nature of work. [Explain historical continuity and change]
7-12 Assess the effects of international trade, transnational business organization, and overseas competition on the economy. [Utilize quantitative data]
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